Tag Archives: Theodosius II

#445 – A History of the Catholic Church – Formula of Union

Emperor Theodosius II works extensively to promote union between John of Antioch and Cyril of Alexandria. While an agreement is made over the Formula of Union, not everyone is equally satisfied. What Theodosius can’t get through persuasion, he strives to get through force.

Links:
Image of Condemnation of Nestorius. Photo taken by Bignick28

Formula of Union

Cyril’s letter on union with John

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#445 – A History of the Catholic Church – Formula of Union

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#444 – A History of the Catholic Church – Canons and Deliberations

As supporters of Cyril of Alexandria and John of Antioch try to sway the emperor and the Roman public to their respective sides, the bishops of Cyril’s synod in Ephesus continue to make decisions about the future of the Church. However, it is increasingly looking like that future will involve a divided Church.

Links:
Mosaic of Council of Ephesus. Photo taken by Palamède

Canons of the Council of Ephesus

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#444 – A History of the Catholic Church – Canons and Deliberations

#443 – A History of the Catholic Church – Cyril Triumphant

Emperor Theodosius’ plans for a peaceful discussion of theology fall apart as rival councils gather in Ephesus and level excommunications against each other. Cyril get what he wants against Nestorius, but at great cost.

Links:
Painting of Third Ecumenical Council by V. Surikov

Map of Ephesus – Church of Mary where Council of Ephesus took place is at #11

Ruins of Ephesus

Judgement against Nestorius

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#443 – A History of the Catholic Church – Cyril Triumphant

#442 – A History of the Catholic Church – Preparation for Ephesus

Emperor Theodosius II decides to call a council in the city of Ephesus in the hopes of making peace between Cyril of Alexandria and Nestorius of Constantinople. Sides are chosen and lines are drawn for the upcoming struggle for the faith.

Links:
Icon of Cyril of Alexandria and the Mother of God.

Pope Celestine I’s letter to the synod of Ephesus

Documents related to the history of the Council of Ephesus

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#442 – A History of the Catholic Church – Preparation for Ephesus

#440 – A History of the Catholic Church – Hypostatic Union

Cyril of Alexandria asserts his own theology of Christ in response to the arguments of Nestorius and the Christological Controversy continues to intensify.

Links:
Icon of Christ treading the beasts by José Luiz Bernardes Ribeiro.

Cyril of Alexandria – Scholia on the incarnation of the Only-Begotten and That Christ is One

Cyril of Alexandria’s Second Letter to Nestorius and Nestorius’ response

Raymond Brown on the importance of Christ’s humanity and divinity

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#440 – A History of the Catholic Church – Hypostatic Union

#439 – A History of the Catholic Church – Prosopon of Union

The controversy over using the term Theotokos intensifies and we examine the Christology of Nestorius in greater detail.

Links:
Icon of Jesus “Not Made By Human Hands”.

Proclus’ Homily on the Annunciation

Works by Nestorius

Additional material explaining Nestorius’ terminology and difference with Cyril of Alexandria

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#439 – A History of the Catholic Church – Prosopon of Union

#435 – A History of the Catholic Church – Free Will and Monasticism

We return to the declining fortunes of the West as Emperor Honorius dies and leaves the throne in the hands of a child. Meanwhile, in North Africa, Augustine finds himself once more forced to explain his views on grace and predestination.

Links:
Painting of Saint Augustine in his study by Sandro Botticelli

Map of Praefecture of Illyricum

Letters of Augustine to Valentinus on free will and predeterminism

Augustine On Grace and Free Will

Augustine On Rebuke and Grace

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#435 – A History of the Catholic Church – Free Will and Monasticism

#432 – A History of the Catholic Church – Rehabilitations and Persecutions

The process of rehabilitating the legacy of John Chrysostom begins and the Persian Church finds itself under persecution once again.

Links:
The Martyrdom of Saint James the Persian

Bishop Atticus of Constantinople on the adding of John’s name to the diptychs
Pope Cyril of Alexandria’s response

Theodoret’s Historia Ecclesiastica on the persecution of the Persian Christians [5:38]

The Synod of Mar Dadiso/Dadyeshu

Herman, Geoffrey. The last years of Yazdgird I and the Christians. Jews, Christians and Zoroastrians: Religious Dynamics in a Sasanian Context. (Judaism in Context 17) Gorgias Press: Piscataway, 2014, pp. 67-90.

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#432 – A History of the Catholic Church – Rehabilitations and Persecutions