Category Archives: Podcast

#386 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Judaizers

The relationship between Jews and Christians in the 4th century was greatly complicated. Christians, known as Judaizers, greatly admired the Jews. However, some Christian leaders such as Chrysostom and Ambrose spoke harshly of the Jews and saw them as a threat to the Church.

Links:
Photo of the Reliquary of the Maccabean martyrs by Hans Peter Schaefer.

John Chrysostom, “Eight Homilies Against the Judaizing Christians”

Ambrose’s letter to Theodosius on the destruction of the synagogue at Callinicum

Ambrose’s letter to Marcellina about confronting Theodosius over the synagogue at Callinicum

Michael J. Petrin, “Justifying the Cult of the Macabeean Martyrs”

Margaret Schatkin, “The Maccabean Martyrs”, Vigiliae Christianae, Vol. 28, No. 2 (Jun., 1974), pp. 97-113.

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#386 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Riot of Judaizers

#385 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Riot of the Statues

In the West, Ambrose triumphs over Valentinian thanks to a fortuitous discovery. In the East, John Chrysostom comes on the scene at a time of crisis for the city of Antioch.

Links:
Photo of the Brescia Casket.

Ambrose’s letter on the finding of the bones of SS. Gervasius and Protasius

The crypt of Ambrose with the relics of SS. Gervasius and Protasius

Wikipedia entry and pictures of the Brescia Casket

John Chrysostom’s Homilies on the Statues

Justin Stephens: A Pagan and Christian interpretation of the Riot of the Statues

Caroly Joslin Watson. “The Program of the Brescia Casket”. Gesta. Vol. 20. No. 2 (1981: 283-298.

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#385 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Riot of the Statues

#384 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Crisis of the Churches

Ambrose and Valentinian II fight over the right of the Homoean Arians to use the churches of Milan while the threat of Magnus Maximus continues to grow.

Links:
Statue of Valentinian II.

Ambrose’s Sermo contra Auxentium – considered a masterpiece of ancient political rhetoric

Ambrose’ letter to Valentinian rejecting the proposed debate

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#384 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Crisis of the Churches

#383 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Problem of Priscillian – Part II

Priscillian’s triumphant return to Hispania does not last long. He faces renewed charges of heresy and sorcery and his fate is placed in the hands of the new emperor Magnus Maximus.

Links:
Photo of gem engraved with image of the Crucifixion courtesy of the British Museum.

Pope Leo I’s letter on the errors of the Priscillians

Augustine on Priscillians

Acts of the Council of Toledo [in Spanish]

Virginia Burrus, The Making of a Heretic: Gender, Authority, and the Priscillianist Controversy

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#383 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Problem of Priscillian – Part II

#382 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Problem of Priscillian – Part I

We start calling the bishops of Rome – the popes of Rome. Priscillian of Avila offers us an example of the challenges of the rising ascetical movement as bishop fights against bishop in Spain.

Links:
Photo of Gold-glass depiction of Jonah and the whale by Anne-Marie Bouché

More on Priscillian.

Various New Testament Apocrypha, including those that Priscillian would have used.

About the so-called Epistle of Saint Paul to the Laodiceans

Map of the Roman provinces in Hispania at the time of Priscillian. Priscillian and his main support was found in Spanish Galicia/Gallaecia.

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#382 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Problem of Priscillian – Part I

#381 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Altar of Victory

Major political and religious events take place in the Empire as Gratian moves against some of the oldest Roman pagan traditions, Magnus Maximus moves against Gratian, and Ambrose asserts himself against Valentinian.

Links:
Solidus of Gratian by Rasiel Suarez

More on the Altar of Victory, including pictures of what it may have looked like.

The Relatio of Symmachus and the two responses of Ambrose

Cameron, Alan “Gratian’s Repudiation of the Pontifical Robe”. The Journal of Roman Studies. Vol. 58. Parts 1 and 2 (1968). pp. 96-102.

Cameron, Alan. “The Imperial Pontifex”. Harvard Studies in Classical Philology. 103 (2007). 341-84.

Thomas Graumann. “The Synod of Constantinople, AD 383. History and Historiography”. Millenium Jahrbuch. 7 (2010). 133-168.

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#381 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Altar of Victory

#380 – A History of the Catholic Church – Virgin and Mother

The debates over the comparative worth of marriage and virginity in Rome, not suprisingly, also lead to debates over the Christian understanding of Mary as a model of the faith and the early steps toward the doctrine of Mary’s perpetual virginity.

Links:
Gold-glass image of Mary with Saints Peter and Paul by Rama

The Protoevangelium of James

Jerome’s The Perpetual Virginity of Mary Against Helvidius

Hunter, David G. (Spring 1993). “Helvidius, Jovinian, and the Virginity of Mary in Late Fourth-Century Rome”. Journal of Early Christian Studies. Johns Hopkins University Press. Vol. 1 (number 1): pp. 47–71

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#380 – A History of the Catholic Church – Virgin and Mother

#379 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Holy Women of Rome

Saint Jerome takes advantage of his time in Rome to promote the consecrated life, especially among Rome’s upper class. These women: Marcella, Paula, Lea, Eustochium and Blaesilla – will, in turn, play a major role in the history of the Church. However, Jerome will also find himself caught in the ecclesiastical politics of Rome, much to his detriment.

Links:
Painting of Saint Jerome with Saints Paula and Eustochium by Francisco de Zurbarán

Jerome’s letter on Marcella

Jerome’s letter on Paula the Elder

Jerome’s letter to Eustochium on virginity

Jerome’s letter to Laeta about her daughter Paula

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#379 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Holy Women of Rome

#378 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Velatio

The rise of virginity in the West runs up against traditional Roman support for marriage and children. Saint Ambrose, however, strives to change the minds of the Western Christians and makes an important connection between virginity and our understanding of the Church.

Links:
Saint Ambrose and his sister, Saint Marcellina by Giovanni Dall’Orto

Ambrose’s Concerning Virginity

Nathalie Henry, “The Song of Songs and the Liturgy from the Velatio in the Fourth Century: From Literary Metaphor to Liturgical Reality”, Continuity and Change in Christian Worship: Papers Read at the 1997 Summer Meeting and the 1998 Winter Meeting of the Ecclesiastical History Society, ed. R. N. Swanson, Rochester: The Boydell Press, 1999, pp. 18-28.

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#378 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Velatio

#377 – A History of the Catholic Church – Brides of Christ

The rise of the ascetical movement brought with it the rise of the debate over the relative virtue of marriage versus celibacy. This debate became even more intense as the number of ascetics rapidly expanded in the fourth century and Virgins move to occupy an important position in the life of the Church.

Links:
Saint Piamun and her mother in an Egyptian village by Charles-Antoine Coypel

Tertullian On Exhortation to Chastity

Cyprian of Carthage On the Dress of Virgins

Gregory of Nyssa On Virginity

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#377 – A History of the Catholic Church – Brides of Christ