Author Archives: sbeshonertor

#394 – A History of the Catholic Church – Christ in Triumph

The growing strength of the Catholic Church is reflected in the changing depiction of Christ in art and angels get wings.

Links:

Photo of the Apse Mosaic of Christ in the basilica of Santa Pudenziana

3rd century image of Christ the Good Shepherd

4th century painting of the Resurrection of Lazarus

Painting of Christ as teacher/philosopher

Christ as Lawgiver on the sarcophagus of Junius Bassus

Santa Costanza Tradio Legis Mosaic

Santa Costanza mosaic of Christ giving keys to Saint Peter

Mosaic of Christ the Lawgiver in Basilica of San Lorenzo in Milan

Santa Pudenziana Mosaic
Rebecca Franzella Seeing the Divine: The Origin, Iconography, and Content of Santa Pudenziana’s Apse Mosaic

Portrait of Christ in Catacombs of Commodilla

Image of Christ in Catacombs of Domitilla with Sabellian description

Baptistry of Keliba

Therese Martin The Development of Winged Angels in Early Christian Art
2nd century image of the Annunciation
4th century image of Sacrifice of Isaac
Image of pagan Altar of Victory
Late 4th/Early 5th century depiction of Angels with Wings on a sarcophagus

Other sources:
Felicity Harley Christianity and the Transformation of Classical Art
J.-M. Spieser. “The Representation of Christ in the Apses of Early Christian Churches.” Gesta 37, no. 1 (1998): 63-73.

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#394 – A History of the Catholic Church – Christ in Triumph

#393 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Basilicas of Milan

As an imperial capital, Milan saw some of the most significant architectural innovation in the 4th century. We also look at some of the ways that Christians expressed their faith in art.

Links:

Photo of the Basilica of San Lorenzo in Milan by Fabio Alessandro

Map of 4th century Milan/Mediolanum Milan/Mediolanum

San Lorenzo in Milan
Architectural plan
Information

Basilica Martyrum/Ambrogio
3-D Tour
Relics of Ambrose, Gervasius and Protasius
Mosaic of Ambrose
Images of other early mosaics
Architectural plan

Basilica Apostolorum/San Nazaro
Information and images in Italian
Information, images and drawings of original basilica – in Italian
3-D reconstruction of original basilica
Constantine’s Church of the Holy Apostles that served as a model – page also contains floor plan of Basilica Apostolorum
Artist depiction of original Church of the Holy Apostles of Constantine
Ambrose’s epigraph on importance of cross shape

Basilica Virgino/San Simpliciano
Information and images in Italian

Alleged letter of Epiphanius describing destruction of religious image

Basil the Great’s defense of images in On The Holy Spirit> #45.

Lots of images of early Christian artistic objects

Christian Red Slip Ware Pottery
Information on Roman lamps in general

Christian Intaglio
Intaglo of Crucifixion
Early images of Crucifixion

Information on and images of Christian gold-glass

The Projecta Casket

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#393 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Basilicas of Milan

Catholic: Under The Hood Classics Episodes 364-368

classics

Presenting more of the back episodes of the History of the Catholic Church series no longer on the main podcast feed.

Episodes in this volume:
#364 – Living as Levites
#365 – Bishop of a Divided City
#366 – The Cappadocians
#367 – The Enemy of My Enemy
#368 – Divided Empire/Divided Church

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Catholic: Under The Hood Episodes 364 to 368

#392 – A History of the Catholic Church – Liturgies in the West

The Western Empire experiences the rise of the Gallic and Roman liturgical families and we see the first mentions of the importance of the Words of Institution in Western Eucharistic theology. Emperor Theodosius constructs the Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls.

Links:

Photo of the Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls

Gallic Liturgy
Latin text including Gallic Mass

Ambrosian Liturgy
Text of the Liturgy in English
Resources on the Ambrosian Liturgy

Roman Liturgy
De Sacramentis

Article on the Epiclesis

Saint Paul Outside the Walls

Minor Basilicas mentions in the episode
Sant’Anastasia al Palatino
San Clemente al Laterano
San Lorenzo in Damaso
Santi Nereo e Achilleo
Santa Pudenziana

Daniel Callam, CSB. “The Frequency of Mass in the Latin Church ca. 400”, Theological Studies. 45. 1984.

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#392 – A History of the Catholic Church – Liturgies in the West

#391 – A History of the Catholic Church – Liturgies in the East

The fourth century saw important developments in the diversification of liturgical practice in the main cities of the Roman Empire while also continuing to express key theological doctrines. The way that Christians worshiped 1600 years ago continues to influence the way that Christians worship today.

Links:

Icon of Saint Basil the Great celebrating the liturgy

Brief description of the different Liturgical families and a <a href="chart showing their relationship

Euchologian of Serapion of Thumis
Anaphora/Eucharistic Prayer begins on page 60

The Apostolic Constitutions
Liturgy of The Apostolic Constitutions – the Liturgical texts begin in Book III

Liturgy of Saint James
Anaphora/Eucharistic Prayer
Full Liturgy of Saint James
Video of celebration of Liturgy of Saint James

Greek Liturgy of Saint Basil the Great
Full Greek Liturgy of Saint Basil
Video of Greek Liturgy of Saint Basil

Liturgy of Saint John Chrysostom
Full Liturgy of Saint John Chrysostom
Video of Liturgy of Saint John Chrysostom

Liturgy of Saint Mark/Cyril
Anaphroa/Eucharistic Prayer
Full Liturgy of Saint Mark
Video of Liturgy of Saint Cyril

Coptic Liturgy of Saint Basil
Full Coptic Liturgy of Saint Basil
Video of Coptic Liturgy of Saint Basil

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#391 – A History of the Catholic Church – Liturgies in the East

Catholic: Under The Hood Classics Episodes 359-363

classics

Presenting more of the back episodes of the History of the Catholic Church series no longer on the main podcast feed.

Episodes in this volume:
#359 – You have won, Galilean
#360 – Depicting the Power of Christ
#361 – Kesate Birhan
#362 – Harp of the Holy Spirit
#363 – Bishop and Monk

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Catholic: Under The Hood Episodes 359 to 363

#390 – A History of the Catholic Church – Penance

While adult baptism was the norm at the end of the 4th century, sometimes there were exceptions. Moreover, as the Church increasingly encouraged earlier baptisms, so did the number of those needing to avail themselves of the possibility of reconciliation increase.

Links:

Painting of Saint Fabiola by Jean-Jacques Henner

Basil of Caesarea’s recommended penances for serious sins

Letter of Saint Jerome on Saint Fabiola

Ambrose’s Eulogy of Valentinian II – important in development of theology of Baptism of Desire

Ambrose on Penance – Book I and Book II

Apostolic Constitutions – Book VIII, Chapter 9 concerns penance

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#390 – A History of the Catholic Church – Penance

#389 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Baptism of Augustine

The Baptism of Augustine helps us better understand the practice and theology of the Initiation Rites at the end of the 4th century and the transforming power these rites were believed to possess.

Links:
Painting of the Baptism of St. Augustine by Benozzo Gozzoli

Photo of ruins of baptistery of Ambrose in Milan where Augustine was baptized

Ambrose – On the Mysteries/De Mysteriis

Ambrose – On the Sacraments/De Sacramentis

Augustine’s account of his baptism in the Confessions

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#389 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Baptism of Augustine

#388 – A History of the Catholic Church – Theodosius Triumphant

Theodosius once again unites the Eastern and Western halves of the Roman Empire after defeating the armies of Arbogast and Eugenius. Having looked at the relationship of Christianity to Judaism and Paganism, we turn our attention to the problem of heresy and the work of Epiphanius of Salamis.

Links:
A copy of the Missiorium of Theodosius

Map of Roman Empire in 395 after Death of Theodosius

Ambrose
Letter to Emperor Eugenius
Letter to Emperor Theodosius after Battle of Frigidius
Funeral Oration of Theodosius

The Panarion of Epiphanius of Salamis
Book One, Books Two and Three
Excerpts

Michele Renee Salzman. “Ambrose and the Usurpation of Arbogastes and Eugenius: Reflections on Pagan-Christian Conflict Narratives.” Journal of Early Christian Studies 18, no. 2 (2010): 191-223.

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#388 – A History of the Catholic Church – Theodosius Triumphant

#387 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Destruction of the Serapeum

Ambrose of Milan helps Theodosius after an unfortunate incident in Thessalonica. The complex and tumultuous relationship between Christians and Pagans is explored including Christian desecration of pagan temples such as the famous Serapeum of Alexandria.

Links:
Painting of Saint Ambrose barring Theodosius I from the Milan Cathedral by Anthony van Dyck.

Theodoret on the incident at Thessalonica

Rufinus on the destruction of the Serapeum

Photos of the ruins of the Serapeum today

Judith S. McKenzie, Shiela Gibson and A. T. Reyes. “Reconstructing the Serapeum in Alexandria from the Archaeological Evidence”. The Journal of Roman Studies. Vol. 94 (2004). 73-121.

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To listen, just click on the link below:
#387 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Destruction of the Serapeum