#466 – A History of the Catholic Church – Combating Error

The increasing dominance of the Catholic Church over its rivals was revealed in the legislation of the Roman Empire and in the violence of monks against pagans, Jews, and heretics. Indeed, by the mid-5th century, we find a growing willingness to punish theological differences with the highest penalties.

Links:
Photo of Santa Sabina with pillars taken from destroyed pagan temple by Dnalor 01

Imperial laws against pagans, Jews, and heretics

Augustine on pagan violence in Suffectum and in Calama and here.

Socrates Scholasticus on violence by Jews

Hunt, E. D. St. Stephen in Minorca: An Episode in Jewish-Christian Relations in the Early 5th Century A.D.

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#466 – A History of the Catholic Church – Combating Error

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#465 – A History of the Catholic Church – Freedom in Christ

The complex interaction between Catholic teaching and the historic traditions of the Greco-Roman tradition on the particular issues of slavery and the treatment of the poor are the focus of this episode and help us to see the how Christianity affected and was affected by the surrounding culture.

Links:
Photo of mosaic of two Roman slaves carrying wine jars by Paschal Radique

CL de Wet The Punishment of Slaves in Early Christianity: The Views of Some Selected Church Fathers

Ilaria L.E. Ramelli – “Social Justice and the Legitimacy of Slavery” was a major source for this episode as was Peter Brown’s “Through the Eye of a Needle”.

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#465 – A History of the Catholic Church – Freedom in Christ

Catholic: Under The Hood Classics – Episodes 439-443

classics

Presenting more of the back episodes of the History of the Catholic Church series no longer on the main podcast feed.

Episodes in this volume:
#439 – Prosopon of Union
#440 – Hypostatic Union
#441 – Twelve Anathemas
#442 – Preparation for Ephesus
#443 – Cyril Triumphant

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Catholic: Under The Hood Episodes 439 to 443

#464 – A History of the Catholic Church – Imagining the Holy

The first half of the 5th century sees significant changes in Christian artistic representation of Christ and the Virgin Mary in response to the growing power of the Church and the recent controversy over Mary as the Mother of God. Church construction also underwent some important developments both in terms of placement and architecture.

Links:
Image of from the Quedlinburg Itala.

Later image of the Hodegetria – perhaps similar to the image recovered by Empress Eudocia

Homily by Asterius of Amasea on wealthy wearing clothes covered with religious images

Mosaics at the Mausoleum of Galla Placidia – including mosaic of Good Shepherd

Photo of the wooden panels of the Basilica of Santa Sabina

Description of the wooden panels

The Maskell Passion Ivories

Old Testament Mosaics at Santa Maria Maggiore

Other images of the mosaics of Santa Maria Maggiore

Images of the architecture of Santa Sabina

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#464 – A History of the Catholic Church – Imagining the Holy

#463 – A History of the Catholic Church – Making a Joyful Noise

Augustine tells us how music should be composed and appreciated, as well as letting us know his favorite hymn. Synesius of Cyrene, Sedulius, Mesrop Mashtots and Maruthas of Martyropolis give us examples of music appreciated by Christians both inside and outside the Roman Empire.

Links:
Image of hymn A solis ortus cardine.

Article on Augustine’s Musical thought

Ambrose’ Deus Creator Omnium in English

Hymns of Synesius in English
Audio of hymn ascribed to Synesius

About Sedulius

Hymns of Sedulius in Latin and in English/Latin and here

Sedulius’ “A solils ortus cardine” in Gregorian chant

Ktsurds by Mesrop Mashtots – in English

Audio of hymn by Mesrop Mashtots

The English translation to Maruthas of Martyroplis’ hymn Onyatha d-Sahde can be found here

Audio of hymn Onyatha d-Sahde ascribed to Maruthas of Martyropolis

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#463 – A History of the Catholic Church – Making a Joyful Noise

#462 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Poetry of Eudocia

The poetry of Empress Eudocia and Paulinus of Nola revealed the tensions that existed in a culture that both praised and rejected the literary works of the past – those of Homer and Virgil. For Eudocia and Paulinus, the examples of the great pagan poets of yesterday could be used to praise Christ in the Roman Empire of their present.

Links:
Icon of Saint Eudocia.

Cătălina Mărmureanu, Gianina Cernescu, Laura Lixandru, Early Christian Women Writiers: The Interesting Lives and Works of Faltonia Betitia Proba and Athenais-Eudocia, Bucharest 2008.

Brian Sowers, Eudocia: The Making of a Homeric Christian

Poetry of Paulinus of Nola [in Latin]

English translations of some of Paulinus’ poetry can be found in this text.

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#462 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Poetry of Eudocia

#461 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Maronites

Throughout the Christological Controversy, monastics played an important role. While many monks, especially in Egypt, supported Mono/Miaphysitism, there were also important communities defending Chalcedon – such as the Maronite community in Syria. In the West, Eastern monasticism will influence the development of monastic communities in Gaul as monks sought to replicate the Egyptian desert experience in the mountains and the forests.

Links:
Icon of Saint Maron.

The Lausiac History of Palladius presenting the history of Egyptian monasticism in this period

Information on the Monastery of St. Euthymius

History of the Maronites

Information on the Abbey of Lérins – in French

Abbot Paul Naaman. The Maronites: The Origins of an Antiochene Church. Collegeville, MN: Cistercian Publication. 2011

Yizhar Hirschfeld, “Eutymius and His Monastery in the Judean Desert”. Liber Annuus. 43. 1993. 339-371

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#461 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Maronites

Catholic: Under The Hood Classics – Episodes 434-438

classics

Presenting more of the back episodes of the History of the Catholic Church series no longer on the main podcast feed.

Episodes in this volume:
#434 – Shenoute
#435 – Free Will and Monasticism
#436 – Cassian and Grace
#437 – The Oncoming Storm
#438 – Christotokos

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Catholic: Under The Hood Episodes 434 to 438

#460 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Two Leos

Political instability continues in the West as one emperor follows another. In the East, Emperor Leo I tries to find a way out of the controversy over Chalcedon but has problems with Timothy II of Alexandria, also known as Timothy the Cat. We finish the episode with a look at how Christians outside the Roman Empire reacted to the Christological Controversy.

Links:
Photo of bust of Emperor Leo I by Marie-Lan Nguyen.

Map of Western Empire under Emperor Majorian

Letter of Pope Leo I to Emperor Leo I opposing idea for a new council

Testimony of Pope Timothy II of Alexandria

History of Church by Evagrius Scholasticus – Chapter 9 has survey of Emperor Leo I

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#460 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Two Leos

#459 – A History of the Catholic Church – Rome Sacked Again

The growing division between the Mono/Miaphysites and the Chalcedonians causes significant problems for the Eastern Empire, especially in Palestine and Egypt. In the West, Emperor Valentinian III is assassinated and Pope Leo I tries to keep the Vandals from destroying Rome.

Links:
Painting of Genseric sacking Rome by Bryullov.

Leo I’s letter to the monks of Palestine regarding his Tome

Chart showing the various Christological theologies and key representatives of each

Ernest Honigmann. “Juvenal of Jerusalem”. Dumbarton Oaks Papers. Vol. 5 (1950). pp. 209-279.

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#459 – A History of the Catholic Church – Rome Sacked Again