#399 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Clerical Cursus Honorum

The first of a series on the state of the clergy at the end of the 4th century. This episode looks at the social background of the clergy, their formation, and the vow of celibacy.

Links:

Image of the the First Council of Constantinople

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#399 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Clerical Cursus Honorum

#398 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Defilement of Marriage

Jerome’s attack on Jovinian causes more problems than it solves. Augustine does better in his defense of the virtue of virginity. Ambrose continues to develop the theology of Mary’s in partu virginity.

Links:

Image of Holy Family with the Adoration of the Magi from the MCAD Library

On Bishop Bonosus

Jerome
Against Jovinianus
Jerome’s letters defending his attacks on Jovinian to Pammachius, a second letter to Pammachius, to Domnio

Augustine
On the Good of Marriage
On Holy Virginity
Augustine’s concerns about Jerome’s interpretation of St. Paul

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#398 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Defilement of Marriage

#397 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Problem of Jovinian

The controversy over the relative merits of marriage and virginity heats up again with the rise of Jovinian and his “new heresy”.

Links:

Image of Projecta Casket from the British Museum

Ambrose and Siricius on Jovinian – pages 280, 282

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#397 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Problem of Jovinian

#396 – A History of the Catholic Church – Ensorcelled By Your Hymns

Great hymnists such as Hilary of Poitiers, Ambrose of Milan, and Prudentius set the foundation for the development of the expression of faith in song – especially in the Western Church.

Links:

Mosaic of Ambrose of Milan

Hilary of Poitiers
Reputed hymns of Hilary of Poitiers – in Latin

Ambrose of Milan
Veni Redemptor Gentium in Latin, in English
Version used in this episode by St. Barnabas Apostle and Martyr Church

Prudentius
Hymns
Verses from Hymn for the Lighting of the Lamps in Latin by Maria Lectrix
Of the Father’s Love Begotten in Latin, in English

Te Deum
Used in this episode

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#396 – A History of the Catholic Church – Ensorcelled By Your Hymns

#395 – A History of the Catholic Church – Singing with Voice and Heart

The Church continues to define authentically Christian music and its role in the liturgical and daily lives of the faithful as instrumental music is frowned upon, but hymns against heretical theology are encouraged.

Links:

Image of Papyrus with verses in Greek from Psalm
90

Ephrem the Syrian Hymn 22, Against Heresies

Niceta of Remesiana On the Benefit of Psalmody

David VanBrugge An Analysis of the Ancient Church Fathers on Instrumental Music

Jonathan Hehn, “Congregational Song as Theological Debate in Late Antiquity: A Case Study of Arius’s Thalia and the Development of Trinitarian Orthodoxy”. In: The Hymn: A Journal of Congregational Song, Vol. 65, No. 1, 2014, pp. 13-20.

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#395 – A History of the Catholic Church – Singing with Heart and Voice

#394 – A History of the Catholic Church – Christ in Triumph

The growing strength of the Catholic Church is reflected in the changing depiction of Christ in art and angels get wings.

Links:

Photo of the Apse Mosaic of Christ in the basilica of Santa Pudenziana

3rd century image of Christ the Good Shepherd

4th century painting of the Resurrection of Lazarus

Painting of Christ as teacher/philosopher

Christ as Lawgiver on the sarcophagus of Junius Bassus

Santa Costanza Tradio Legis Mosaic

Santa Costanza mosaic of Christ giving keys to Saint Peter

Mosaic of Christ the Lawgiver in Basilica of San Lorenzo in Milan

Santa Pudenziana Mosaic
Rebecca Franzella Seeing the Divine: The Origin, Iconography, and Content of Santa Pudenziana’s Apse Mosaic

Portrait of Christ in Catacombs of Commodilla

Image of Christ in Catacombs of Domitilla with Sabellian description

Baptistry of Keliba

Therese Martin The Development of Winged Angels in Early Christian Art
2nd century image of the Annunciation
4th century image of Sacrifice of Isaac
Image of pagan Altar of Victory
Late 4th/Early 5th century depiction of Angels with Wings on a sarcophagus

Other sources:
Felicity Harley Christianity and the Transformation of Classical Art
J.-M. Spieser. “The Representation of Christ in the Apses of Early Christian Churches.” Gesta 37, no. 1 (1998): 63-73.

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#394 – A History of the Catholic Church – Christ in Triumph

#393 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Basilicas of Milan

As an imperial capital, Milan saw some of the most significant architectural innovation in the 4th century. We also look at some of the ways that Christians expressed their faith in art.

Links:

Photo of the Basilica of San Lorenzo in Milan by Fabio Alessandro

Map of 4th century Milan/Mediolanum Milan/Mediolanum

San Lorenzo in Milan
Architectural plan
Information

Basilica Martyrum/Ambrogio
3-D Tour
Relics of Ambrose, Gervasius and Protasius
Mosaic of Ambrose
Images of other early mosaics
Architectural plan

Basilica Apostolorum/San Nazaro
Information and images in Italian
Information, images and drawings of original basilica – in Italian
3-D reconstruction of original basilica
Constantine’s Church of the Holy Apostles that served as a model – page also contains floor plan of Basilica Apostolorum
Artist depiction of original Church of the Holy Apostles of Constantine
Ambrose’s epigraph on importance of cross shape

Basilica Virgino/San Simpliciano
Information and images in Italian

Alleged letter of Epiphanius describing destruction of religious image

Basil the Great’s defense of images in On The Holy Spirit> #45.

Lots of images of early Christian artistic objects

Christian Red Slip Ware Pottery
Information on Roman lamps in general

Christian Intaglio
Intaglo of Crucifixion
Early images of Crucifixion

Information on and images of Christian gold-glass

The Projecta Casket

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#393 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Basilicas of Milan

Catholic: Under The Hood Classics Episodes 364-368

classics

Presenting more of the back episodes of the History of the Catholic Church series no longer on the main podcast feed.

Episodes in this volume:
#364 – Living as Levites
#365 – Bishop of a Divided City
#366 – The Cappadocians
#367 – The Enemy of My Enemy
#368 – Divided Empire/Divided Church

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Catholic: Under The Hood Episodes 364 to 368

#392 – A History of the Catholic Church – Liturgies in the West

The Western Empire experiences the rise of the Gallic and Roman liturgical families and we see the first mentions of the importance of the Words of Institution in Western Eucharistic theology. Emperor Theodosius constructs the Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls.

Links:

Photo of the Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls

Gallic Liturgy
Latin text including Gallic Mass

Ambrosian Liturgy
Text of the Liturgy in English
Resources on the Ambrosian Liturgy

Roman Liturgy
De Sacramentis

Article on the Epiclesis

Saint Paul Outside the Walls

Minor Basilicas mentions in the episode
Sant’Anastasia al Palatino
San Clemente al Laterano
San Lorenzo in Damaso
Santi Nereo e Achilleo
Santa Pudenziana

Daniel Callam, CSB. “The Frequency of Mass in the Latin Church ca. 400”, Theological Studies. 45. 1984.

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#392 – A History of the Catholic Church – Liturgies in the West

#391 – A History of the Catholic Church – Liturgies in the East

The fourth century saw important developments in the diversification of liturgical practice in the main cities of the Roman Empire while also continuing to express key theological doctrines. The way that Christians worshiped 1600 years ago continues to influence the way that Christians worship today.

Links:

Icon of Saint Basil the Great celebrating the liturgy

Brief description of the different Liturgical families and a <a href="chart showing their relationship

Euchologian of Serapion of Thumis
Anaphora/Eucharistic Prayer begins on page 60

The Apostolic Constitutions
Liturgy of The Apostolic Constitutions – the Liturgical texts begin in Book III

Liturgy of Saint James
Anaphora/Eucharistic Prayer
Full Liturgy of Saint James
Video of celebration of Liturgy of Saint James

Greek Liturgy of Saint Basil the Great
Full Greek Liturgy of Saint Basil
Video of Greek Liturgy of Saint Basil

Liturgy of Saint John Chrysostom
Full Liturgy of Saint John Chrysostom
Video of Liturgy of Saint John Chrysostom

Liturgy of Saint Mark/Cyril
Anaphroa/Eucharistic Prayer
Full Liturgy of Saint Mark
Video of Liturgy of Saint Cyril

Coptic Liturgy of Saint Basil
Full Coptic Liturgy of Saint Basil
Video of Coptic Liturgy of Saint Basil

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#391 – A History of the Catholic Church – Liturgies in the East