Tag Archives: Pope Leo I

#458 – A History of the Catholic Church – Leo and Attila

The conclusion of the Council of Chalcedon left the church divided – Rome vs. Constantinople and Chalcedonian vs. Miaphysite. These conflicts will influnce the future course of Christianity for the next three hundred years. We take a look at the Christological divisions after Chalcedon.

Links:
Painting of The Meeting between Leo the Great and Attila by Raphael.

Map of Roman Empire and Empire of the Huns in 450.

Salvian’s On the Government of God

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#458 – A History of the Catholic Church – Leo and Attila

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#457 – A History of the Catholic Church – Canon 28

Chalcedon was intended to unite the Church, but – in many ways – the Church is more divided after Chalcedon than it had been before. Constantinople and Rome are divided over the place of Constantinople in the ecclesiastical hierarchy. The Church of Egypt refuses to accept the Tome of Leo and the Definition of Chalcedon.

Links:
Icon of Anatolius of Constantinople.

Canons of Chalcedon

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#457 – A History of the Catholic Church – Canon 28

#456 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Definition of Chalcedon

The Council of Chalcedon continues and with it continue conflicts over Christology and Roman authority. The bishops of Chalcedon put forward a new statement of faith in the hopes of unifying the Church.

Links:
Painting of the Council of Chalcedon by Andreevartstudio

The Definition of Chalcedon

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#456 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Definition of Chalcedon

#455 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Council of Chalcedon

The Council of Chalcedon begins with a broadside against Pope Dioscorus of Alexandria. The Tome of Leo is accepted. Marcian and Pulcheria hope Chalcedon will be result in universal agreement, but future troubles are seen.

Links:
Painting of the Council of Chalcedon by Vasily Surikov

Extensive documentation on the Council of Chalcedon/Fourth Ecumenical Council

Leo’s Letter to Theodoret of Cyrus on the acceptance of the Tome of Leo

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#455 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Council of Chalcedon

#454 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Turning Tides

The Eastern Empire finds itself in political and religious turmoil after the death of Emperor Theodosius II and Pope Leo I of Rome takes the opportunity to assert himself and obtain the universal acceptance of his Tome.

Links:
Image of Emperor Marcian

Map of the Roman Empire in 450 AD

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#454 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Turning Tides

#453 – A History of the Catholic Church – Latrocinium

At the Second Council of Ephesus, Pope Dioscorus of Alexandria and his One Nature Christology emerges triumphant. The Two-Nature Christology of the Antiochenes is condemned and Pope Leo I of Rome finds himself powerless to stop it.

Links:
Image of the martyrdom of Flavian of Constantinople from the “Little Pictorial Lives of the Saints” by John Gilmary Shea 1894 p. 121

Appeal of Flavian of Constantinople to Pope Leo
Letters of Leo to Theodosius II asking for new ecumenical council to overturn II Ephesus
Letter of Theodoret of Cyrus to Leo asking for his help
Letter of Galla Placidia to Theodosius II asking for new ecumenical council

Henry Chadwick, “The Exile and Death of Flavian of Constantinople: A Prologue to the Council of Chalcedon”, The Journal of Theological Studies, New Series, Vol 6, No. 1 (April 1955): 17-34.

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#453 – A History of the Catholic Church – Latrocinium

#452 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Tome of Leo

Pope Leo I of Rome assembles a text presenting the Christology of the West in the hopes of putting an end to the controversy once and for all. However, in the East, Pope Dioscorus of Alexandria has his own plans.

Links:
Photo of Statue of Pope Leo I taken by Mattana

Selections from Tertullian on Christology

Tome of Leo

Barclift, Philip L. “The Shifting Tones of Pope Leo the Great’s Christological Vocabulary.” Church History 66, no. 2 (1997): 221-39.

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#452 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Tome of Leo

#451 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Problem of Eutyches

In Constantinople, the Christological Controversy erupts once again as sides are formed over the case of Eutyches. Each seeking to gain the support of Emperor Theodosius and Pope Leo against their rivals.

Links:
Image of Flavian of Constantinople taken by Siriopomante

Letter of Eutyches to Leo about the Synod of Constantinople

Leo’s letter to Flavian asking for more information about the Synod of Constantinople

Leo’s letter to Emperor Theodosius asking for more information about the Synod of Constantinople

First letter of Flavian to Leo about Synod of Constantinople

Second letter of Flavian to Leo about the Synod of Constantinople

Initial response of Leo to Flavian after having received his letters

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#451 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Problem of Eutyches

#450 – A History of the Catholic Church – Changing of the Guard

Pope Leo has problems with Illyricum. In the East, the sees of Constantinople, Alexandria, and Antioch find themselves under new management – but the conflict over the theology of Christ continues.

Links:
Icon of Pope Dioscorus of Alexandria.

Letter of Leo to Anastasius

Letter of Leo to Eutyches

Theodoret of Cyrus’ Eranistes

Alleged letter of Theodoret of Cyrus on the death of Cyril of Alexandria

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#450 – A History of the Catholic Church – Changing of the Guard

#449 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Challenge of the Papacy

Pope Leo finds that the collapse of the Western Roman Empire makes it more difficult for him to assert his authority in Gaul, Hispaniae and Northern Africa. Yet, the support of Emperor Valentinian III provides a strong boost to Leo in those lands still under imperial control.

Links:
Icon of Leo the Great. Photo by Wlbw68

Letter of Pope Leo on the conflict with Hilary of Arles

Letter of Pope Leo to Bishop Turibus on the Priscillians

Valentinian III’s decree endorsing papal authority

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#449 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Challenge of the Papacy