Tag Archives: Theodoret of Cyrus

#453 – A History of the Catholic Church – Latrocinium

At the Second Council of Ephesus, Pope Dioscorus of Alexandria and his One Nature Christology emerges triumphant. The Two-Nature Christology of the Antiochenes is condemned and Pope Leo I of Rome finds himself powerless to stop it.

Links:
Image of the martyrdom of Flavian of Constantinople from the “Little Pictorial Lives of the Saints” by John Gilmary Shea 1894 p. 121

Appeal of Flavian of Constantinople to Pope Leo
Letters of Leo to Theodosius II asking for new ecumenical council to overturn II Ephesus
Letter of Theodoret of Cyrus to Leo asking for his help
Letter of Galla Placidia to Theodosius II asking for new ecumenical council

Henry Chadwick, “The Exile and Death of Flavian of Constantinople: A Prologue to the Council of Chalcedon”, The Journal of Theological Studies, New Series, Vol 6, No. 1 (April 1955): 17-34.

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#453 – A History of the Catholic Church – Latrocinium

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#452 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Tome of Leo

Pope Leo I of Rome assembles a text presenting the Christology of the West in the hopes of putting an end to the controversy once and for all. However, in the East, Pope Dioscorus of Alexandria has his own plans.

Links:
Photo of Statue of Pope Leo I taken by Mattana

Selections from Tertullian on Christology

Tome of Leo

Barclift, Philip L. “The Shifting Tones of Pope Leo the Great’s Christological Vocabulary.” Church History 66, no. 2 (1997): 221-39.

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#452 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Tome of Leo

#451 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Problem of Eutyches

In Constantinople, the Christological Controversy erupts once again as sides are formed over the case of Eutyches. Each seeking to gain the support of Emperor Theodosius and Pope Leo against their rivals.

Links:
Image of Flavian of Constantinople taken by Siriopomante

Letter of Eutyches to Leo about the Synod of Constantinople

Leo’s letter to Flavian asking for more information about the Synod of Constantinople

Leo’s letter to Emperor Theodosius asking for more information about the Synod of Constantinople

First letter of Flavian to Leo about Synod of Constantinople

Second letter of Flavian to Leo about the Synod of Constantinople

Initial response of Leo to Flavian after having received his letters

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#451 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Problem of Eutyches

#450 – A History of the Catholic Church – Changing of the Guard

Pope Leo has problems with Illyricum. In the East, the sees of Constantinople, Alexandria, and Antioch find themselves under new management – but the conflict over the theology of Christ continues.

Links:
Icon of Pope Dioscorus of Alexandria.

Letter of Leo to Anastasius

Letter of Leo to Eutyches

Theodoret of Cyrus’ Eranistes

Alleged letter of Theodoret of Cyrus on the death of Cyril of Alexandria

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#450 – A History of the Catholic Church – Changing of the Guard

#447 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Tome of Proclus

In the West, Carthage falls under the Vandals and Pope Sixtus III tries to hold onto control of his territory. In the East, the conflict between Alexandria and Antioch heats up again as Cyril and his allies turn against the memory of Theodore of Mopsuestia and Diodore of Tarsus. Armenia moves toward Cyrillian theology and John Chrysostom returns home.

Links:
Icon of Proclus of Constantinople.

Cyril of Alexandria’s Against Diodore and Theodore

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#447 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Tome of Proclus

#445 – A History of the Catholic Church – Formula of Union

Emperor Theodosius II works extensively to promote union between John of Antioch and Cyril of Alexandria. While an agreement is made over the Formula of Union, not everyone is equally satisfied. What Theodosius can’t get through persuasion, he strives to get through force.

Links:
Image of Condemnation of Nestorius. Photo taken by Bignick28

Formula of Union

Cyril’s letter on union with John

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#445 – A History of the Catholic Church – Formula of Union

#444 – A History of the Catholic Church – Canons and Deliberations

As supporters of Cyril of Alexandria and John of Antioch try to sway the emperor and the Roman public to their respective sides, the bishops of Cyril’s synod in Ephesus continue to make decisions about the future of the Church. However, it is increasingly looking like that future will involve a divided Church.

Links:
Mosaic of Council of Ephesus. Photo taken by Palamède

Canons of the Council of Ephesus

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#444 – A History of the Catholic Church – Canons and Deliberations

#443 – A History of the Catholic Church – Cyril Triumphant

Emperor Theodosius’ plans for a peaceful discussion of theology fall apart as rival councils gather in Ephesus and level excommunications against each other. Cyril get what he wants against Nestorius, but at great cost.

Links:
Painting of Third Ecumenical Council by V. Surikov

Map of Ephesus – Church of Mary where Council of Ephesus took place is at #11

Ruins of Ephesus

Judgement against Nestorius

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#443 – A History of the Catholic Church – Cyril Triumphant

#441 – A History of the Catholic Church – Twelve Anathemas

Nestorius finds himself condemned by synods in Rome and Alexandria, but just as things seem to be going Cyril’s way – his Twelve Anathemas drive a huge wedge into the Eastern Church

Links:
Painting of Cyril of Alexandria and the Mother of God. Photo taken by José Goncalves.

Pope Cyril of Alexandria’s Third Letter to Nestorius and the Twelve Anathemas

Pope Celestine of Rome’s letter to Nestorius

Bishop Theodoret of Cyrus’ responses to Cyril’s Anathemas

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#441 – A History of the Catholic Church – Twelve Anathemas