Tag Archives: Cyril of Alexandria

#447 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Tome of Proclus

In the West, Carthage falls under the Vandals and Pope Sixtus III tries to hold onto control of his territory. In the East, the conflict between Alexandria and Antioch heats up again as Cyril and his allies turn against the memory of Theodore of Mopsuestia and Diodore of Tarsus. Armenia moves toward Cyrillian theology and John Chrysostom returns home.

Links:
Icon of Proclus of Constantinople.

Cyril of Alexandria’s Against Diodore and Theodore

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#447 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Tome of Proclus

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#445 – A History of the Catholic Church – Formula of Union

Emperor Theodosius II works extensively to promote union between John of Antioch and Cyril of Alexandria. While an agreement is made over the Formula of Union, not everyone is equally satisfied. What Theodosius can’t get through persuasion, he strives to get through force.

Links:
Image of Condemnation of Nestorius. Photo taken by Bignick28

Formula of Union

Cyril’s letter on union with John

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#445 – A History of the Catholic Church – Formula of Union

#444 – A History of the Catholic Church – Canons and Deliberations

As supporters of Cyril of Alexandria and John of Antioch try to sway the emperor and the Roman public to their respective sides, the bishops of Cyril’s synod in Ephesus continue to make decisions about the future of the Church. However, it is increasingly looking like that future will involve a divided Church.

Links:
Mosaic of Council of Ephesus. Photo taken by Palamède

Canons of the Council of Ephesus

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#444 – A History of the Catholic Church – Canons and Deliberations

#443 – A History of the Catholic Church – Cyril Triumphant

Emperor Theodosius’ plans for a peaceful discussion of theology fall apart as rival councils gather in Ephesus and level excommunications against each other. Cyril get what he wants against Nestorius, but at great cost.

Links:
Painting of Third Ecumenical Council by V. Surikov

Map of Ephesus – Church of Mary where Council of Ephesus took place is at #11

Ruins of Ephesus

Judgement against Nestorius

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#443 – A History of the Catholic Church – Cyril Triumphant

#442 – A History of the Catholic Church – Preparation for Ephesus

Emperor Theodosius II decides to call a council in the city of Ephesus in the hopes of making peace between Cyril of Alexandria and Nestorius of Constantinople. Sides are chosen and lines are drawn for the upcoming struggle for the faith.

Links:
Icon of Cyril of Alexandria and the Mother of God.

Pope Celestine I’s letter to the synod of Ephesus

Documents related to the history of the Council of Ephesus

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#442 – A History of the Catholic Church – Preparation for Ephesus

#441 – A History of the Catholic Church – Twelve Anathemas

Nestorius finds himself condemned by synods in Rome and Alexandria, but just as things seem to be going Cyril’s way – his Twelve Anathemas drive a huge wedge into the Eastern Church

Links:
Painting of Cyril of Alexandria and the Mother of God. Photo taken by José Goncalves.

Pope Cyril of Alexandria’s Third Letter to Nestorius and the Twelve Anathemas

Pope Celestine of Rome’s letter to Nestorius

Bishop Theodoret of Cyrus’ responses to Cyril’s Anathemas

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#441 – A History of the Catholic Church – Twelve Anathemas

#440 – A History of the Catholic Church – Hypostatic Union

Cyril of Alexandria asserts his own theology of Christ in response to the arguments of Nestorius and the Christological Controversy continues to intensify.

Links:
Icon of Christ treading the beasts by José Luiz Bernardes Ribeiro.

Cyril of Alexandria – Scholia on the incarnation of the Only-Begotten and That Christ is One

Cyril of Alexandria’s Second Letter to Nestorius and Nestorius’ response

Raymond Brown on the importance of Christ’s humanity and divinity

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#440 – A History of the Catholic Church – Hypostatic Union

#438 – A History of the Catholic Church – Christotokos

After looking at the Antiochene tradition in Christology, we see how tensions between the Cyril of Alexandria and Nestorius of Constantinople heat up over the appropriateness of calling Mary the Mother of God.

Links:
Icon of Christ. The eyes are said to reflect Christ’s divinity and humanity.

On Theodore of Mopsuestia

More on Theodore of Mopsuestia’s Christology

Comparison between Alexandrine and Antiochine approaches to Christology

The Sub Tuum Praesidium hymn that makes reference to the Theotokos

Cassian’s Seven Books Against Nestorius

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#438 – A History of the Catholic Church – Christotokos

#432 – A History of the Catholic Church – Rehabilitations and Persecutions

The process of rehabilitating the legacy of John Chrysostom begins and the Persian Church finds itself under persecution once again.

Links:
The Martyrdom of Saint James the Persian

Bishop Atticus of Constantinople on the adding of John’s name to the diptychs
Pope Cyril of Alexandria’s response

Theodoret’s Historia Ecclesiastica on the persecution of the Persian Christians [5:38]

The Synod of Mar Dadiso/Dadyeshu

Herman, Geoffrey. The last years of Yazdgird I and the Christians. Jews, Christians and Zoroastrians: Religious Dynamics in a Sasanian Context. (Judaism in Context 17) Gorgias Press: Piscataway, 2014, pp. 67-90.

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#432 – A History of the Catholic Church – Rehabilitations and Persecutions

#424 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Philosopher

In Alexandria, the conflict between Pope Cyril and Prefect Orestes explodes and the great philosopher Hypatia is murdered. In Persia, the Christians try to recover from decades of persecution.

Links:
Portrait of Hypatia by Jules Maurice Gaspard

Bishop Synesius of Cyrene’s letters to Hypatia

The Canons of the Council of Mar ‘Ishaq/Issac

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#424 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Philospher