Tag Archives: Theodosius I

#392 – A History of the Catholic Church – Liturgies in the West

The Western Empire experiences the rise of the Gallic and Roman liturgical families and we see the first mentions of the importance of the Words of Institution in Western Eucharistic theology. Emperor Theodosius constructs the Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls.

Links:

Photo of the Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls

Gallic Liturgy
Latin text including Gallic Mass

Ambrosian Liturgy
Text of the Liturgy in English
Resources on the Ambrosian Liturgy

Roman Liturgy
De Sacramentis

Article on the Epiclesis

Saint Paul Outside the Walls

Minor Basilicas mentions in the episode
Sant’Anastasia al Palatino
San Clemente al Laterano
San Lorenzo in Damaso
Santi Nereo e Achilleo
Santa Pudenziana

Daniel Callam, CSB. “The Frequency of Mass in the Latin Church ca. 400”, Theological Studies. 45. 1984.

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#392 – A History of the Catholic Church – Liturgies in the West

#388 – A History of the Catholic Church – Theodosius Triumphant

Theodosius once again unites the Eastern and Western halves of the Roman Empire after defeating the armies of Arbogast and Eugenius. Having looked at the relationship of Christianity to Judaism and Paganism, we turn our attention to the problem of heresy and the work of Epiphanius of Salamis.

Links:
A copy of the Missiorium of Theodosius

Map of Roman Empire in 395 after Death of Theodosius

Ambrose
Letter to Emperor Eugenius
Letter to Emperor Theodosius after Battle of Frigidius
Funeral Oration of Theodosius

The Panarion of Epiphanius of Salamis
Book One, Books Two and Three
Excerpts

Michele Renee Salzman. “Ambrose and the Usurpation of Arbogastes and Eugenius: Reflections on Pagan-Christian Conflict Narratives.” Journal of Early Christian Studies 18, no. 2 (2010): 191-223.

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#388 – A History of the Catholic Church – Theodosius Triumphant

#387 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Destruction of the Serapeum

Ambrose of Milan helps Theodosius after an unfortunate incident in Thessalonica. The complex and tumultuous relationship between Christians and Pagans is explored including Christian desecration of pagan temples such as the famous Serapeum of Alexandria.

Links:
Painting of Saint Ambrose barring Theodosius I from the Milan Cathedral by Anthony van Dyck.

Theodoret on the incident at Thessalonica

Rufinus on the destruction of the Serapeum

Photos of the ruins of the Serapeum today

Judith S. McKenzie, Shiela Gibson and A. T. Reyes. “Reconstructing the Serapeum in Alexandria from the Archaeological Evidence”. The Journal of Roman Studies. Vol. 94 (2004). 73-121.

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#387 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Destruction of the Serapeum

#386 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Judaizers

The relationship between Jews and Christians in the 4th century was greatly complicated. Christians, known as Judaizers, greatly admired the Jews. However, some Christian leaders such as Chrysostom and Ambrose spoke harshly of the Jews and saw them as a threat to the Church.

Links:
Photo of the Reliquary of the Maccabean martyrs by Hans Peter Schaefer.

John Chrysostom, “Eight Homilies Against the Judaizing Christians”

Ambrose’s letter to Theodosius on the destruction of the synagogue at Callinicum

Ambrose’s letter to Marcellina about confronting Theodosius over the synagogue at Callinicum

Michael J. Petrin, “Justifying the Cult of the Macabeean Martyrs”

Margaret Schatkin, “The Maccabean Martyrs”, Vigiliae Christianae, Vol. 28, No. 2 (Jun., 1974), pp. 97-113.

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#386 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Riot of Judaizers

#385 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Riot of the Statues

In the West, Ambrose triumphs over Valentinian thanks to a fortuitous discovery. In the East, John Chrysostom comes on the scene at a time of crisis for the city of Antioch.

Links:
Photo of the Brescia Casket.

Ambrose’s letter on the finding of the bones of SS. Gervasius and Protasius

The crypt of Ambrose with the relics of SS. Gervasius and Protasius

Wikipedia entry and pictures of the Brescia Casket

John Chrysostom’s Homilies on the Statues

Justin Stephens: A Pagan and Christian interpretation of the Riot of the Statues

Caroly Joslin Watson. “The Program of the Brescia Casket”. Gesta. Vol. 20. No. 2 (1981: 283-298.

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#385 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Riot of the Statues

#381 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Altar of Victory

Major political and religious events take place in the Empire as Gratian moves against some of the oldest Roman pagan traditions, Magnus Maximus moves against Gratian, and Ambrose asserts himself against Valentinian.

Links:
Solidus of Gratian by Rasiel Suarez

More on the Altar of Victory, including pictures of what it may have looked like.

The Relatio of Symmachus and the two responses of Ambrose

Cameron, Alan “Gratian’s Repudiation of the Pontifical Robe”. The Journal of Roman Studies. Vol. 58. Parts 1 and 2 (1968). pp. 96-102.

Cameron, Alan. “The Imperial Pontifex”. Harvard Studies in Classical Philology. 103 (2007). 341-84.

Thomas Graumann. “The Synod of Constantinople, AD 383. History and Historiography”. Millenium Jahrbuch. 7 (2010). 133-168.

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#381 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Altar of Victory

#371 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed

We look first at the Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed that may have been adopted at the First Council of Constantinople and Emperor Theodosius’ moves against those deemed to be heretics. Then, we look at developments in the Western Church – especially at Bishop Damasus of Rome’s claims to greater authority.

Links:

Icon of Constantine and bishops holding Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed

Comparison between the Nicene and Constantinopolitan Creeds

Proceedings of the 381 Council of Aquileia

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#371 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed

#370 – A History of the Catholic Church – The First Council of Constantinople

Seeking to resolve the problems of the Churches of Constantinople and Antioch, Emperor Theodosius calls for a council. However, the results of the council reveal even greater tensions. Maximus the Cynic seeks to supplant Gregory Nazianzen as bishop of Constantinople.

Links:

Icon of the First Council of Constantinople

Letter of the Bishops at the First Council of Constantinople to the Bishops of the West

Canons of the First Council of Constantinople

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#370 – A History of the Catholic Church – The First Council of Constantinople

#369 – A History of the Catholic Church – Valens Falls/Theodosius Rises

Invading Goths cause chaos throughout the Eastern half of the Roman empire and cost the life of an emperor. But in Theodosius, the Nicene Christians find a new protector and there are signs of hope for a resolution of the Trinitarian Controversy.

Links:

Fr. Seraphim’s Amazon Wish List for Christmas

Image of emperors Valentian, Valens, Gratian and Theodosius

Map of Roman Empire between 376-378 showing Tervingi, Gruethungi, Huns and location of Adrianople.

Theodosius’ Cunctos Populos ordering all Christians to follow faith of Damasus of Rome and Peter of Alexandria.

John Lascaratos & Spyros Marketos, “Didymus the Blind: An unknown precursor of Louis Braille and Helen Keller”, Documenta Opthalmologica, 86, 1994, pp. 203-208.

Zeev Rubin, “The Conversion of the Visigoths to Christianity”, Museum Helveticum, 38 (1081), pp. 34-54.

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#369 – A History of the Catholic Church – Valens Falls/Theodosius Rises