Tag Archives: Ambrose of Milan

#395 – A History of the Catholic Church – Singing with Voice and Heart

The Church continues to define authentically Christian music and its role in the liturgical and daily lives of the faithful as instrumental music is frowned upon, but hymns against heretical theology are encouraged.

Links:

Image of Papyrus with verses in Greek from Psalm
90

Ephrem the Syrian Hymn 22, Against Heresies

Niceta of Remesiana On the Benefit of Psalmody

David VanBrugge An Analysis of the Ancient Church Fathers on Instrumental Music

Jonathan Hehn, “Congregational Song as Theological Debate in Late Antiquity: A Case Study of Arius’s Thalia and the Development of Trinitarian Orthodoxy”. In: The Hymn: A Journal of Congregational Song, Vol. 65, No. 1, 2014, pp. 13-20.

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#395 – A History of the Catholic Church – Singing with Heart and Voice

#393 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Basilicas of Milan

As an imperial capital, Milan saw some of the most significant architectural innovation in the 4th century. We also look at some of the ways that Christians expressed their faith in art.

Links:

Photo of the Basilica of San Lorenzo in Milan by Fabio Alessandro

Map of 4th century Milan/Mediolanum Milan/Mediolanum

San Lorenzo in Milan
Architectural plan
Information

Basilica Martyrum/Ambrogio
3-D Tour
Relics of Ambrose, Gervasius and Protasius
Mosaic of Ambrose
Images of other early mosaics
Architectural plan

Basilica Apostolorum/San Nazaro
Information and images in Italian
Information, images and drawings of original basilica – in Italian
3-D reconstruction of original basilica
Constantine’s Church of the Holy Apostles that served as a model – page also contains floor plan of Basilica Apostolorum
Artist depiction of original Church of the Holy Apostles of Constantine
Ambrose’s epigraph on importance of cross shape

Basilica Virgino/San Simpliciano
Information and images in Italian

Alleged letter of Epiphanius describing destruction of religious image

Basil the Great’s defense of images in On The Holy Spirit> #45.

Lots of images of early Christian artistic objects

Christian Red Slip Ware Pottery
Information on Roman lamps in general

Christian Intaglio
Intaglo of Crucifixion
Early images of Crucifixion

Information on and images of Christian gold-glass

The Projecta Casket

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#393 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Basilicas of Milan

#392 – A History of the Catholic Church – Liturgies in the West

The Western Empire experiences the rise of the Gallic and Roman liturgical families and we see the first mentions of the importance of the Words of Institution in Western Eucharistic theology. Emperor Theodosius constructs the Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls.

Links:

Photo of the Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls

Gallic Liturgy
Latin text including Gallic Mass

Ambrosian Liturgy
Text of the Liturgy in English
Resources on the Ambrosian Liturgy

Roman Liturgy
De Sacramentis

Article on the Epiclesis

Saint Paul Outside the Walls

Minor Basilicas mentions in the episode
Sant’Anastasia al Palatino
San Clemente al Laterano
San Lorenzo in Damaso
Santi Nereo e Achilleo
Santa Pudenziana

Daniel Callam, CSB. “The Frequency of Mass in the Latin Church ca. 400”, Theological Studies. 45. 1984.

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#392 – A History of the Catholic Church – Liturgies in the West

#390 – A History of the Catholic Church – Penance

While adult baptism was the norm at the end of the 4th century, sometimes there were exceptions. Moreover, as the Church increasingly encouraged earlier baptisms, so did the number of those needing to avail themselves of the possibility of reconciliation increase.

Links:

Painting of Saint Fabiola by Jean-Jacques Henner

Basil of Caesarea’s recommended penances for serious sins

Letter of Saint Jerome on Saint Fabiola

Ambrose’s Eulogy of Valentinian II – important in development of theology of Baptism of Desire

Ambrose on Penance – Book I and Book II

Apostolic Constitutions – Book VIII, Chapter 9 concerns penance

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#390 – A History of the Catholic Church – Penance

#389 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Baptism of Augustine

The Baptism of Augustine helps us better understand the practice and theology of the Initiation Rites at the end of the 4th century and the transforming power these rites were believed to possess.

Links:
Painting of the Baptism of St. Augustine by Benozzo Gozzoli

Photo of ruins of baptistery of Ambrose in Milan where Augustine was baptized

Ambrose – On the Mysteries/De Mysteriis

Ambrose – On the Sacraments/De Sacramentis

Augustine’s account of his baptism in the Confessions

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#389 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Baptism of Augustine

#388 – A History of the Catholic Church – Theodosius Triumphant

Theodosius once again unites the Eastern and Western halves of the Roman Empire after defeating the armies of Arbogast and Eugenius. Having looked at the relationship of Christianity to Judaism and Paganism, we turn our attention to the problem of heresy and the work of Epiphanius of Salamis.

Links:
A copy of the Missiorium of Theodosius

Map of Roman Empire in 395 after Death of Theodosius

Ambrose
Letter to Emperor Eugenius
Letter to Emperor Theodosius after Battle of Frigidius
Funeral Oration of Theodosius

The Panarion of Epiphanius of Salamis
Book One, Books Two and Three
Excerpts

Michele Renee Salzman. “Ambrose and the Usurpation of Arbogastes and Eugenius: Reflections on Pagan-Christian Conflict Narratives.” Journal of Early Christian Studies 18, no. 2 (2010): 191-223.

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#388 – A History of the Catholic Church – Theodosius Triumphant

#387 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Destruction of the Serapeum

Ambrose of Milan helps Theodosius after an unfortunate incident in Thessalonica. The complex and tumultuous relationship between Christians and Pagans is explored including Christian desecration of pagan temples such as the famous Serapeum of Alexandria.

Links:
Painting of Saint Ambrose barring Theodosius I from the Milan Cathedral by Anthony van Dyck.

Theodoret on the incident at Thessalonica

Rufinus on the destruction of the Serapeum

Photos of the ruins of the Serapeum today

Judith S. McKenzie, Shiela Gibson and A. T. Reyes. “Reconstructing the Serapeum in Alexandria from the Archaeological Evidence”. The Journal of Roman Studies. Vol. 94 (2004). 73-121.

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#387 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Destruction of the Serapeum

#386 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Judaizers

The relationship between Jews and Christians in the 4th century was greatly complicated. Christians, known as Judaizers, greatly admired the Jews. However, some Christian leaders such as Chrysostom and Ambrose spoke harshly of the Jews and saw them as a threat to the Church.

Links:
Photo of the Reliquary of the Maccabean martyrs by Hans Peter Schaefer.

John Chrysostom, “Eight Homilies Against the Judaizing Christians”

Ambrose’s letter to Theodosius on the destruction of the synagogue at Callinicum

Ambrose’s letter to Marcellina about confronting Theodosius over the synagogue at Callinicum

Michael J. Petrin, “Justifying the Cult of the Macabeean Martyrs”

Margaret Schatkin, “The Maccabean Martyrs”, Vigiliae Christianae, Vol. 28, No. 2 (Jun., 1974), pp. 97-113.

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#386 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Riot of Judaizers

#385 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Riot of the Statues

In the West, Ambrose triumphs over Valentinian thanks to a fortuitous discovery. In the East, John Chrysostom comes on the scene at a time of crisis for the city of Antioch.

Links:
Photo of the Brescia Casket.

Ambrose’s letter on the finding of the bones of SS. Gervasius and Protasius

The crypt of Ambrose with the relics of SS. Gervasius and Protasius

Wikipedia entry and pictures of the Brescia Casket

John Chrysostom’s Homilies on the Statues

Justin Stephens: A Pagan and Christian interpretation of the Riot of the Statues

Caroly Joslin Watson. “The Program of the Brescia Casket”. Gesta. Vol. 20. No. 2 (1981: 283-298.

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#385 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Riot of the Statues

#384 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Crisis of the Churches

Ambrose and Valentinian II fight over the right of the Homoean Arians to use the churches of Milan while the threat of Magnus Maximus continues to grow.

Links:
Statue of Valentinian II.

Ambrose’s Sermo contra Auxentium – considered a masterpiece of ancient political rhetoric

Ambrose’ letter to Valentinian rejecting the proposed debate

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#384 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Crisis of the Churches