Category Archives: Sacraments

#392 – A History of the Catholic Church – Liturgies in the West

The Western Empire experiences the rise of the Gallic and Roman liturgical families and we see the first mentions of the importance of the Words of Institution in Western Eucharistic theology. Emperor Theodosius constructs the Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls.

Links:

Photo of the Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls

Gallic Liturgy
Latin text including Gallic Mass

Ambrosian Liturgy
Text of the Liturgy in English
Resources on the Ambrosian Liturgy

Roman Liturgy
De Sacramentis

Article on the Epiclesis

Saint Paul Outside the Walls

Minor Basilicas mentions in the episode
Sant’Anastasia al Palatino
San Clemente al Laterano
San Lorenzo in Damaso
Santi Nereo e Achilleo
Santa Pudenziana

Daniel Callam, CSB. “The Frequency of Mass in the Latin Church ca. 400”, Theological Studies. 45. 1984.

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#392 – A History of the Catholic Church – Liturgies in the West

#391 – A History of the Catholic Church – Liturgies in the East

The fourth century saw important developments in the diversification of liturgical practice in the main cities of the Roman Empire while also continuing to express key theological doctrines. The way that Christians worshiped 1600 years ago continues to influence the way that Christians worship today.

Links:

Icon of Saint Basil the Great celebrating the liturgy

Brief description of the different Liturgical families and a <a href="chart showing their relationship

Euchologian of Serapion of Thumis
Anaphora/Eucharistic Prayer begins on page 60

The Apostolic Constitutions
Liturgy of The Apostolic Constitutions – the Liturgical texts begin in Book III

Liturgy of Saint James
Anaphora/Eucharistic Prayer
Full Liturgy of Saint James
Video of celebration of Liturgy of Saint James

Greek Liturgy of Saint Basil the Great
Full Greek Liturgy of Saint Basil
Video of Greek Liturgy of Saint Basil

Liturgy of Saint John Chrysostom
Full Liturgy of Saint John Chrysostom
Video of Liturgy of Saint John Chrysostom

Liturgy of Saint Mark/Cyril
Anaphroa/Eucharistic Prayer
Full Liturgy of Saint Mark
Video of Liturgy of Saint Cyril

Coptic Liturgy of Saint Basil
Full Coptic Liturgy of Saint Basil
Video of Coptic Liturgy of Saint Basil

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#391 – A History of the Catholic Church – Liturgies in the East

#390 – A History of the Catholic Church – Penance

While adult baptism was the norm at the end of the 4th century, sometimes there were exceptions. Moreover, as the Church increasingly encouraged earlier baptisms, so did the number of those needing to avail themselves of the possibility of reconciliation increase.

Links:

Painting of Saint Fabiola by Jean-Jacques Henner

Basil of Caesarea’s recommended penances for serious sins

Letter of Saint Jerome on Saint Fabiola

Ambrose’s Eulogy of Valentinian II – important in development of theology of Baptism of Desire

Ambrose on Penance – Book I and Book II

Apostolic Constitutions – Book VIII, Chapter 9 concerns penance

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#390 – A History of the Catholic Church – Penance

#389 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Baptism of Augustine

The Baptism of Augustine helps us better understand the practice and theology of the Initiation Rites at the end of the 4th century and the transforming power these rites were believed to possess.

Links:
Painting of the Baptism of St. Augustine by Benozzo Gozzoli

Photo of ruins of baptistery of Ambrose in Milan where Augustine was baptized

Ambrose – On the Mysteries/De Mysteriis

Ambrose – On the Sacraments/De Sacramentis

Augustine’s account of his baptism in the Confessions

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#389 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Baptism of Augustine

#347 – A History of the Catholic Church -The Mysteries

Increasing numbers of Christians and the legalization of Christianity under Constantine motivate changes in the religious practice of the Christians – especially in the rites of Baptism, Chrismation and the Eucharist. We also look at changes in the practice of Penance and other practices that will later become known as Sacraments.

Links:

Image of the baptistry in Milan where Ambrose baptized Augustine – by Fr. Gaurav Shroff

Catechetical Lectures of Cyril of Jerusalem – the Mystagogical Lectures on Baptism, Chrismation and Eucharist begin with #19.

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#347 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Mysteries

#345 – A History of the Catholic Church – The First Christian Basilica

The promotion of Christianity under Constantine brought with it a rapidly growing Christian population and a need for new places of worship. Christians will look to the model of the imperial basilica for their new churches, but not without modifying them to meet their needs. In turn the new basilicas, beginning with Saint John Lateran, will influence the way the Christians lived and experienced their faith.

Links:

Image of Saint John Lateran as it is today by Livioandronico2013

BACKGROUND
Map of Rome’s Titular Churches
Catacomb church of Saint Agnes Outside the Walls

IMPERIAL BASILICAS

Plan and images of the Basilica Ulpia of Emperor Trajan
Plan and images of Constantine’s Basilica at Trier can be found here, here, and here

SAINT JOHN LATERAN
Plan of Saint John Lateran
Comparison of old and new Saint John Lateran
Isometric reconstruction of Old Saint John Lateran

David Tyler Thayer, “The Lateran Baptistery: Memory, Space, and Baptism” includes many images and diagrams of the Lateran Baptistery.

GENERAL
Bernard Dick has a good article with nice images of Constantine’s churches

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#345 – A History of the Catholic Church – The First Christian Basilica

#293 – A History of the Catholic Church – Eucharist in the Early Church

lastsupper

One of the most important rituals of the early Church was the celebration of Eucharist, a ritual with roots in Jewish tradition – but with significance differences under the influence of the theology of the first Christians. This episode will look at these Jewish roots and how Christians understood what Jesus had done both at the Last Supper and in his death and resurrection.

Links:

Photo – icon of Last Supper

Didache – Chapters 9, 10 and 14 concern the Eucharist.

For more information, see Maxwell Johnson’s book, The Rites of Christian Initiation

Wikipedia article on the Cenacle, where the Last Supper took place

Article and images of the Temple of Asclepion in Corinth – including body parts that may have inspired St. Paul

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podcasticon#293 – A History of the Catholic Church – Eucharist in the Early Church

#292 – A History of the Catholic Church – Baptism in the Early Church

jordan

The Early Church believed that one could only become part of the Church Christ established through Baptism. While the roots of Christian baptism can be found in the acts of John the Baptist, in Christianity the theology of Baptism became something greater.

Links:

Photo of possible site of Jesus’ baptism by Producer

Image of Baptism by Immersion taken from 3rd century Catacombs of Saint Callisto
Image of Baptism by Affusion

Didache – Chapter 7 concerns baptism.

For more information, see Maxwell Johnson’s book, The Rites of Christian Initiation

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Send e-mail questions and comments to catholicunderthehood@gmail.com

To listen, just click on the link below:
podcasticon#291 – A History of the Catholic Church – Baptism in the Early Church

Today in Catholic History – The End of the Sacrament House

On 21 August 1863, the Sacred Congregation of Rites prohibited the placing of the Blessed Sacrament in what was called a Sacrament House.

For much of Catholic History there were no uniform regulations regarding the placement of the Blessed Sacrament other that the location where the Sacrament was kept be secure and visible. Some churches kept the Blessed Sacrament in the sacristy, some in receptacles above the altar, some in tabernacles on the altar and some in cabinets in walls constructed like a tower called the “Sacrament House”. Sacrament Houses were particularly popular in churches built in medieval Germany, Switzerland, and Belgium.

These towers would be close to the altar but not attached to it. Usually on the north side of the church. The Blessed Sacrament would be kept behind a door of metal lattice so that the faithful could see the reserved Sacrament at all times.

The chief reason why the Sacred Congregation of Rites came to prohibit Sacrament Houses was the desire to move to the common use of tabernacles as the proper location for the placement of the Blessed Sacrament.

Here are some examples of Sacrament Houses.

Today in Catholic History – Quam Singulari

On 8 August 1910, Pope Pius X issued the decree Quam singulari stating that all children were obligated to receive their first communion and first confession by the time they obtained the age of reason. Pius asserted that this age was approximately the age of seven.

Pius X condemned the belief that only those who had a “full knowledge” of the faith should receive Communion as being contrary both to the history and teachings of the Catholic Church as expressed at the Lateran Council of 1215 and was harmful to the spiritual life of the child. For, denying Holy Communion and Confession to a child because the child did not have “full knowledge” of the faith risked forcing the child to live in a state in which the had child was subject to the temptation to sin without the ability to receive the grace that came from the Eucharist.

Quam Singulari did not condemn the traditional Eastern practice of the reception of Holy Communion by infants, indeed Pius X used the Eastern tradition to demonstrate how “full knowledge” of the faith should not be a condition for reception of the Eucharist. Rather, Quam Singulari is intended to set an age by which a child should receive their first communion not the age at which they should receive.

Quam singulari