Category Archives: Imperial Church

#460 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Two Leos

Political instability continues in the West as one emperor follows another. In the East, Emperor Leo I tries to find a way out of the controversy over Chalcedon but has problems with Timothy II of Alexandria, also known as Timothy the Cat. We finish the episode with a look at how Christians outside the Roman Empire reacted to the Christological Controversy.

Links:
Photo of bust of Emperor Leo I by Marie-Lan Nguyen.

Map of Western Empire under Emperor Majorian

Letter of Pope Leo I to Emperor Leo I opposing idea for a new council

Testimony of Pope Timothy II of Alexandria

History of Church by Evagrius Scholasticus – Chapter 9 has survey of Emperor Leo I

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#460 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Two Leos

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#459 – A History of the Catholic Church – Rome Sacked Again

The growing division between the Mono/Miaphysites and the Chalcedonians causes significant problems for the Eastern Empire, especially in Palestine and Egypt. In the West, Emperor Valentinian III is assassinated and Pope Leo I tries to keep the Vandals from destroying Rome.

Links:
Painting of Genseric sacking Rome by Bryullov.

Leo I’s letter to the monks of Palestine regarding his Tome

Chart showing the various Christological theologies and key representatives of each

Ernest Honigmann. “Juvenal of Jerusalem”. Dumbarton Oaks Papers. Vol. 5 (1950). pp. 209-279.

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#459 – A History of the Catholic Church – Rome Sacked Again

#458 – A History of the Catholic Church – Leo and Attila

The conclusion of the Council of Chalcedon left the church divided – Rome vs. Constantinople and Chalcedonian vs. Miaphysite. These conflicts will influnce the future course of Christianity for the next three hundred years. We take a look at the Christological divisions after Chalcedon.

Links:
Painting of The Meeting between Leo the Great and Attila by Raphael.

Map of Roman Empire and Empire of the Huns in 450.

Salvian’s On the Government of God

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#458 – A History of the Catholic Church – Leo and Attila

#457 – A History of the Catholic Church – Canon 28

Chalcedon was intended to unite the Church, but – in many ways – the Church is more divided after Chalcedon than it had been before. Constantinople and Rome are divided over the place of Constantinople in the ecclesiastical hierarchy. The Church of Egypt refuses to accept the Tome of Leo and the Definition of Chalcedon.

Links:
Icon of Anatolius of Constantinople.

Canons of Chalcedon

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#457 – A History of the Catholic Church – Canon 28

#456 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Definition of Chalcedon

The Council of Chalcedon continues and with it continue conflicts over Christology and Roman authority. The bishops of Chalcedon put forward a new statement of faith in the hopes of unifying the Church.

Links:
Painting of the Council of Chalcedon by Andreevartstudio

The Definition of Chalcedon

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#456 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Definition of Chalcedon

#455 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Council of Chalcedon

The Council of Chalcedon begins with a broadside against Pope Dioscorus of Alexandria. The Tome of Leo is accepted. Marcian and Pulcheria hope Chalcedon will be result in universal agreement, but future troubles are seen.

Links:
Painting of the Council of Chalcedon by Vasily Surikov

Extensive documentation on the Council of Chalcedon/Fourth Ecumenical Council

Leo’s Letter to Theodoret of Cyrus on the acceptance of the Tome of Leo

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#455 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Council of Chalcedon

#454 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Turning Tides

The Eastern Empire finds itself in political and religious turmoil after the death of Emperor Theodosius II and Pope Leo I of Rome takes the opportunity to assert himself and obtain the universal acceptance of his Tome.

Links:
Image of Emperor Marcian

Map of the Roman Empire in 450 AD

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#454 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Turning Tides

#453 – A History of the Catholic Church – Latrocinium

At the Second Council of Ephesus, Pope Dioscorus of Alexandria and his One Nature Christology emerges triumphant. The Two-Nature Christology of the Antiochenes is condemned and Pope Leo I of Rome finds himself powerless to stop it.

Links:
Image of the martyrdom of Flavian of Constantinople from the “Little Pictorial Lives of the Saints” by John Gilmary Shea 1894 p. 121

Appeal of Flavian of Constantinople to Pope Leo
Letters of Leo to Theodosius II asking for new ecumenical council to overturn II Ephesus
Letter of Theodoret of Cyrus to Leo asking for his help
Letter of Galla Placidia to Theodosius II asking for new ecumenical council

Henry Chadwick, “The Exile and Death of Flavian of Constantinople: A Prologue to the Council of Chalcedon”, The Journal of Theological Studies, New Series, Vol 6, No. 1 (April 1955): 17-34.

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#453 – A History of the Catholic Church – Latrocinium

#452 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Tome of Leo

Pope Leo I of Rome assembles a text presenting the Christology of the West in the hopes of putting an end to the controversy once and for all. However, in the East, Pope Dioscorus of Alexandria has his own plans.

Links:
Photo of Statue of Pope Leo I taken by Mattana

Selections from Tertullian on Christology

Tome of Leo

Barclift, Philip L. “The Shifting Tones of Pope Leo the Great’s Christological Vocabulary.” Church History 66, no. 2 (1997): 221-39.

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#452 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Tome of Leo

#451 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Problem of Eutyches

In Constantinople, the Christological Controversy erupts once again as sides are formed over the case of Eutyches. Each seeking to gain the support of Emperor Theodosius and Pope Leo against their rivals.

Links:
Image of Flavian of Constantinople taken by Siriopomante

Letter of Eutyches to Leo about the Synod of Constantinople

Leo’s letter to Flavian asking for more information about the Synod of Constantinople

Leo’s letter to Emperor Theodosius asking for more information about the Synod of Constantinople

First letter of Flavian to Leo about Synod of Constantinople

Second letter of Flavian to Leo about the Synod of Constantinople

Initial response of Leo to Flavian after having received his letters

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#451 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Problem of Eutyches