Tag Archives: Athanasius of Alexandria

#410 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Conflict over Origen – Round Three

Pope Theophilis of Alexandria and the monks of Nitria clash violently over the orthodoxy of Origen.

Links:

Image of Pope Theophilus of Alexandria.

Synodal letter of Theophilus condemning Origenism

Letter of Jerome to Theophilus on Origen

OCA commemoration of 10,000 Martyred Fathers

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#410 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Conflict Over Origen – Round Three

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#364 – A History of the Catholic Church – Living as Levites

Athanasius influences the spread of monasticism in the West. Eusebius of Vercelli and Martin of Tours establish the first monasteries. The Church continues to expand its understanding of sainthood while at the same time fighting against veneration of “false martyrs”.

Links:

Statue of Martin of Tours cutting his cloak in half by Eva Kröcher

Sulpicius Severus’ Life of Saint Martin of Tours

Website of the Abbey de Ligugé – the first monastery Martin of Tours established and oldest monastery in Europe

Information and images of the now destroyed monastery of Marmoutier – in French

Information and images of Christian gold-glass

Information and images about Christian gems that were also popular relics from pilgrimages

Matheus Coutinho Figuinha, “Martin of Tours’ Monasticism and Aristocracies in Fourth-Century Gaul”, Revista Brasileira de História, v. 36, no. 71, Jan-April 2016, pp. 1-22.

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#364 – A History of the Catholic Church – Living as Levites

#359 – A History of the Catholic Church – You have won, Galilean

Julian continues his attack on the Christian Church and Athanasius attempts to end the schism of the Church in Antioch, but neither gets what they hoped for as Meletius of Antioch resists Athanasius and Julian falls in battle.

Links:

Image of Icon of Saint Mercurius slaying Julian

Julian’s anti-Christian Against the Galilaeans

The 360 Council of Constantinople’s Tomus ad Antiochenos

Maps showing Julian’s war on the Sassanids

A different image of Saint Mercurius slaying Julian

H. C. Teitler, “Ammianus, Libanius, Chrysostomus and the Martyrs of Antioch”, Vigiliae Christianiae 67, (2013) pp. 263-288.

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#359 – A History of the Catholic Church – You have won, Galilean

#357 – A History of the Catholic Church – Triumph of Arianism

We continue to look at the different sides of the Trinitarian Controversy: the homoean Arians – who said the Father was like the Son “according to the Scriptures” and the neo-Arians – who said the Father was unlike the Son in nature. The faith of Liberius, bishop of Rome, fails as the “whole world groans to find itself Arian”.

Links:

Image of Constantius II on horseback.

Image of Felix II at Basilica of Saint Paul’s Outside the Walls

Golden Legend on Felix II

Creed of 360 Council of Constantinople

T. D. Barnes, “The Capitulation of Liberius and Hilary of Poiters”, Phoenix, Vol. 46, No. 3, (Autumn 1992), pp. 256-265.

E. D. Hunt. “Christians and Christianity in Ammianus Marcellinus”, Classical Quarterly, 35, 186-200, 1985

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#357 – A History of the Catholic Church – Triumph of Arianism

#356 – A History of the Catholic Church – Athanasius Contra Mundum

Constantius II moves against the bishops of the West, including bishop Liberius of Rome, in his desire to establish a common theology and obtain an empire wide condemnation of Athanasius. The Nicene/Eusebian division becomes more complicated as we look at the homoousions – those who said the Father had the same nature as the Son and the homoiousions – those who said that the Father had a similar nature to the Son.

Links:

Image of Athanasius

Trial of Liberius of Rome

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#356 – A History of the Catholic Church – Athanasius Contra Mundum

#355 – A History of the Catholic Church – Fighters for Christ

The Trinitarian Controversy continues to divide the Church and the Donatist Controversy breaks out again. Constans is overthrown and Constantius II emerges triumphant, much to the dread of the Western Church. Things aren’t looking good.

Links:

Image of Constans

345 Macrostich/Long-lined Creed

351 Creed of Sirmium

Maureen A. Tilley, “Sustaining Donatist Self-Identity: From the Church of the Martyrs to the Collecta of the Desert”, Journal of Early Christian Studies, 5.1, 1997, pp. 21-35.

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#355 – A History of the Catholic Church – Fighters for Christ

#354 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Sons of Constantine

The death of Constantine finds the empire divided among his relatives and the Church divided between the Nicenes and the Eusebians – none of whom work well together.

Links:

Image of Constantine with his three sons

Map of empire divided among Constantine II, Constantius II and Constans

The many creeds of the many councils in the 4th century – including the 341 Council of Antioch, the 343 Council of Sardica and the 343 Council of Philippopolis

The Holy Notaries

Jorg Ulrich, “Nicaea and the West”, Vigiliae Christianae 51, pp. 20-24.

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#354 – A History of the Catholic Church – The Sons of Constantine

#352 – A History of the Catholic Church – Anathematizations and Glorifications

In his final years, Constantine continues to have a profound effect on the Church and the Trinitarian Controversy moves in a new direction with the death of Arius. We also look at the development of the Canonical Scriptures and the importance of the Roman Army on the expansion of Christianity.

Links:

Image of Raphael’s Baptism of Constantine.

Information on Marcellus of Ancyra

Icon showing death of Arius

Eusebius and Athanasius on the Scriptures

Lead tank used by Roman army for baptisms

Images of the Church of the Holy Apostles can be found here and here.

Apotheosis of Constantine

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#352 – A History of the Catholic Church – Anathematizations and Glorifications

#351 – A History of the Catholic Church – Nicenes and Eusebians

The Council of Nicaea did not resolve the controversy over the relationship between the Father and the Son, despite the wishes of Constantine. Indeed, as theology and politics and personalities become more intertwined, the Trinitarian Controversy becomes more intense.

Links:

Image of Constantine burning Arius’ books.

Timothy Barnes, “The Exile and Recalls of Arius”, Journal of Theological Studies, Vol. 60, No. 1, April 2009, 109-129.

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#351 – A History of the Catholic Church – Nicenes and Eusebians

#342 – A History Catholic of the Catholic Church – The First Ecumenical Council

As the conflict between Arius and Alexander grows larger, bishops throughout the Eastern Empire choose sides. Constantine decides to summon bishops from throughout the Roman Empire in the hopes of establishing peace.

Links:

Image of Icon of the First Council of Nicaea. This icon shows Arius in brown, without the halo. The figure facing him is possibly Alexander of Alexandria. Constantine is shown wearing a crown.

Constantine’s letter to Arius and Alexander seeking peace

Constantine’s letter summoning the bishops to Nicaea

Documents relating to the 325 Synod of Antioch

Icons of Saint Nicholas slapping Arius

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#342 – A History of the Catholic Church – The First Ecumenical Council