In the 1850s, the rise of the Know-Nothing movement symbolized increasing hostility to Catholics and immigrants in the United States. This hostility would even leave its mark on the Washington Monument.
Endres, David J. “Know-Nothings, Nationhood, and the Nuncio: Reassessing the Visit of Archbishop Bedini”. U.S. Catholic Historian. 21. #4. 1 October 2003. 1-16.
Jacob, Judith M. The Washington Monument: A Technical History and Catalog of the Commemorative Stones. National Park Service, U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Northeast Region, Design, Construction, and Facility Management Directorate, Architectural Preservation Division. 2005.
Torres, Louis. “To the Immortal Name and Memory of George Washington”: The United States Army Corps of Engineers and the Construction of the Washington Monument. EP 870-1-21. Historical Division, Office of the Administrative Services, Office of the Chief of Engineers. 1985.
Uncompleted Washington Monument by Mathew Brady
Finished Washington Monument by David Iliff. License: CC-BY-SA 3.0
Image of replaced “Pope’s Stone” taken from Jacob.
Image of Smithsonian’s purported remnant of former “Pope’s Stone” from John Lockwood. “A Deed of Barbarism”. National Mall and Memorial Times. March 2010. 5.
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